Wednesday, 22 August 2018

FORMALDEHYDE AND FORMALDEHYDE-RELEASING PRESERVATIVES







Formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasing preservatives (FRPs) are used in many personal care products,[1] particularly in shampoos and liquid baby soaps. These chemicals, which help prevent microbes from growing in water-based products, can be absorbed through the skin and have been linked to cancer and allergic skin reactions.
FOUND IN: Nail polish, nail glue, eyelash glue, hair gel, hair-smoothing products, baby shampoo, body soap, body wash, color cosmetics.
WHAT TO LOOK FOR ON THE LABEL: Formaldehyde, quaternium-15, DMDM hydantoin, imidazolidinyl urea, diazolidinyl urea, polyoxymethylene urea, sodium hydroxymethylglycinate, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol (bromopol) and glyoxal.
WHAT IS FORMALDEHYDE? Formaldehyde is a colorless, strong-smelling gas used in a wide range of industries and products including building materials, walls, cabinets furniture and personal care products.[2]
WHAT ARE FORMALDEHYDE-RELEASING PRESERVATIVES AND WHERE ARE THEY FOUND?In personal care products, formaldehyde can be added directly, or more often, it can be released from preservatives[3] [4] such as quaternium-15, DMDM hydantoin, imidazolidinyl urea, diazolidinyl urea, polyoxymethylene urea, sodium hydroxymethylglycinate, bromopol and glyoxal. MORE...
HEALTH CONCERNS: Cancer, skin irritation  MORE...
VULNERABLE POPULATIONS: Infants, hair salon workers, nail salon workers.
REGULATIONS: Banned from use in cosmetics and toiletries in Japan and Sweden[37]; in the EU, restricted in personal care products, and labeling is required in products that do contain these chemicals[38]; concentration restrictions in Canada.[39] The EU allows the use of Quaternium-15 up to 0.2% as a preservative in cosmetic products.[40]
HOW TO AVOID: Read labels and avoid products containing the following ingredients: Formaldehyde, quaternium-15, dimethyl-dimethyl (DMDM) hydantoin, imidazolidinyl urea, diazolidinyl urea, sodium hydroxymethylglycinate, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol (bromopol). In addition, choose nail products that are labeled formaldehyde-free or “toxic-trio-free” (formaldehyde, toluene and DBP). Skip hair-smoothing products—especially those sold in salons, as salon-based products are exempt from labeling laws. Don’t use expired cosmetic products or store cosmetic products in the sun because this can cause more formaldehyde to be released.[41]
References
[1] Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-food Products. Opinion concerning a clarification on the formaldehyde and para-formaldehyde entry in Directive 76/768/EEC on cosmetic products. Opinion: European Commission. 2002. Available Online: http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sccp/out187_en.pdf. Accessed Online October 16, 2009.
[3] Moennich JN, Hanna DM, Jacob SE (2009). Environmental Exposures-A pediatric perspective on allergic contact dermatitis. Skin & Aging. July 2009:28-36.
[4] Jacob SE, Breithaupt A (2009). Environmental Exposures-A pediatric perspective in baby and cosmetic products. Journal of the Dermatology Nurses’ Association 1:211-214.
[5] Flyvholm MA, Hall BM, Agner T, Tiedemann E, Greenhill P, Vanderveken W, Freeberg FE, Menne T. Threshold for occluded formaldehyde patch test in formaldehyde-sensitive patients. Relationship to repeated open application test with a product containing formaldehyde releaser. Contact Dermatitis. 1997;36(1):26-33.
[6] Jordan WP Jr., Sherman WT, King SE. (2009). Threshold responses in formaldehyde-sensitive subjects. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1979;1(1):44-48. Also confirmed by personal communication between Dr. Sharon Jacob and Stacy Malkan, February 26, 2009.
[7] Lv, C., Hou, J., Xie, W., & Cheng, H. (2015). Investigation on formaldehyde release from preservatives in cosmetics. International journal of cosmetic science.
[8] Becker, L. C., Bergfeld, W. F., Belsito, D. V., Klaassen, C. D., Hill, R., Leibler, D., … & Andersen, F. A. (2010). Final report of the amended safety assessment of quaternium-15 as used in cosmetics. International journal of toxicology, 29(3 suppl), 98S-114S.
[9] Propionate, A., Chloride, B., Urea, D., Black, D., Hydantoin, D. M. D. M., Acetate, E., … & Glycerides, H. T. (2008). Annual Review of Cosmetic Ingredient Safety Assessments. International Journal of Toxicology, 27(1), 77-142.
[10] Imidazolidinyl Urea Available Online: http://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/703119/IMIDAZOLIDINYL_UREA_%28FORMALDEHYDE_RELEASER%29/. Accessed September 19, 2015.
[11] Imidazolidinyl urea Available Online: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/chem_background/exsumpdf/imidazolidinylurea_508.pdf. Accessed September 28, 2015.
[12] Lv, C., Hou, J., Xie, W., & Cheng, H. (2015). Investigation on formaldehyde release from preservatives in cosmetics. International journal of cosmetic science.
[13] Diazolidinyl Urea Available Online: http://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/701923/DIAZOLIDINYL_UREA_%28FORMALDEHYDE_RELEASER%29/#. Accessed September 19, 2015.
[14] Polyoxymethylene Available Online: http://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/705083/POLYOXYMETHYLENE_UREA_%28FORMALDEHYDE_RELEASER%29/. Accessed September 19, 2015.
[15] Russell, K., & Jacob, S. E. (2010). Sodium hydroxymethylglycinate. Dermatitis, 21(2), 109-110.
[16] Nitrosamines available online: http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/nitrosamines. Accessed September 23, 2015.
[17] Andersen, F. A. (2000). Amended final report on the safety assessment of Glyoxal. International journal of toxicology, 19, 13-27.
[18] International Agency for Research on Cancer. “IARC classifies formaldehyde as carcinogenic to humans.” Press release. June 15, 2004. www.iarc.fr/en/MEdia-Centre/IARC-Press-Releases/Archives-2006-2004/2004/IARC-classifies-formaldehyde-as-carcinogenic-to-humans. Accessed January 9, 2009.
[19] Zhang et al 2009. Meta-analysis of formaldehyde and hematologic cancers in humans. Mutation Research 681: 150-168.
[20] Yoshida, I., & Ibuki, Y. (2014). Formaldehyde-induced histone H3 phosphorylation via JNK and the expression of proto-oncogenes. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis, 770, 9-18.
[21] Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Priority Existing Chemical Assessment Report No. 28: Formaldehyde. November 2006. Page 68. Available Online: http://www.nicnas.gov.au/Publications/CAR/PEC/PEC28/PEC_28_Full_Report_PDF.pdf. Accessed January 9, 2009.
[22] Bartnik FG, Gloxhuber C, Zimmerman V. (1985). Percutaneous absorption of formaldehyde in rats. Toxicol Lett, 25(2):167-172.
[23] Nitrosamines available online: http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/nitrosamines. Accessed September 23, 2015.
[24] Pontén, A., & Bruze, M. (2015). Formaldehyde. Dermatitis, 26(1), 3-6.
[25] Pontén, A., & Bruze, M. (2015). Formaldehyde. Dermatitis, 26(1), 3-6.
[26] Flyvholm MA, Menne T. (1992). Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde. A case syudy focusing on sources of formaldehyde exposure. Contact Dermatitis, 27(1):27-36.
[27] Boyvat A, Akyol A, Gurgey E (2005). Contact sensitivity to preservatives in Turkey. Contact Dermatitis, 52(6):333-337.
[28] Pratt MD, Belsito DV, DeLeo VA, Fowler JF Jr, Fransway AF, Maibach HI, Marks JG, Mathias CG, Rietschel RL, Sasseville D, Sheretz EF, Storss FJ, Taylor JS, Zug K. (2004). North American Contact Dermatitis Group patch-test results, 2001-2002 study period. Dermatitis, 27(1):27-36.
[29] Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Priority Existing Chemical Assessment Report No. 28:Formadehyde. November 2006. Page 193. Available online: http://www.nicnas.gov.au/Publications/CAR/PEC/PEC28/PEC_28_Full_Report_PDF.pdf. Accessed January 9, 2009.
[30] Pontén, A., & Bruze, M. (2015). Formaldehyde. Dermatitis, 26(1), 3-6.
[31] Jacob SE and Steele T (2007). Avoid Formaldehyde Allergic Reactions in Children. Pediatric Annals, 36(1):55-56.
[32] Becker, L. C., Bergfeld, W. F., Belsito, D. V., Klaassen, C. D., Hill, R., Leibler, D., … & Andersen, F. A. (2010). Final report of the amended safety assessment of quaternium-15 as used in cosmetics. International journal of toxicology, 29(3 suppl), 98S-114S.
[33] Becker, L. C., Bergfeld, W. F., Belsito, D. V., Klaassen, C. D., Hill, R., Leibler, D., … & Andersen, F. A. (2010). Final report of the amended safety assessment of quaternium-15 as used in cosmetics. International journal of toxicology, 29(3 suppl), 98S-114S.
[34] Andersen, F. A. (2000). Amended final report on the safety assessment of Glyoxal. International journal of toxicology, 19, 13-27.
[35] Russell, K., & Jacob, S. E. (2010). Sodium hydroxymethylglycinate. Dermatitis, 21(2), 109-110.
[36] Russell, K., & Jacob, S. E. (2010). Sodium hydroxymethylglycinate. Dermatitis, 21(2), 109-110.
[37] Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-food Products. Opinion concerning a clarification on the formaldehyde and para-formaldehyde entry in Directive 76/768/EEC on cosmetic products. Opinion: European Commission. 2002. Available Online: http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sccp/out187_en.pdf. Accessed Online October 16, 2009.
[38] Other uses of formaldehyde have different restrictions in Canada. Canada’s Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist Available Online: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/cps-spc/person/cosmet/info-ind-prof/_hot-list-critique/hotlist-liste_1-eng.php. Accessed October 16, 2009.
[39] Amparo S and Chisvert A (2007). Analysis of Cosmetic Products. Elsevier. Amsterdam, p. 215.
[40] Becker, L. C., Bergfeld, W. F., Belsito, D. V., Klaassen, C. D., Hill, R., Leibler, D., … & Andersen, F. A. (2010). Final report of the amended safety assessment of quaternium-15 as used in cosmetics. International journal of toxicology, 29(3 suppl), 98S-114S.
[41] Lv, C., Hou, J., Xie, W., & Cheng, H. (2015). Investigation on formaldehyde release from preservatives in cosmetics. International journal of cosmetic science.

Friday, 17 August 2018

Essential Oils

Organic Lemon Essential Oil
  • Invigorating and uplifting when diffused
  • Use it as a teeth whitener, household cleaner and laundry freshener

Organic Peppermint Essential Oil
  • Breathe in a boost with its invigorating, energizing scent
  • Is great in smoothies and more

Organic Frankincense Trinity Essential Oil
  • Historically-prized and Biblical “king of oils”
  • Can be used in a variety of ways

Organic Tea Tree Essential Oil
  • Famously cleansing and purifying
  • Can be used for everything for skin support, household cleaning and more

Organic Lavender Essential Oil  
  • Pleasant, calming scent
  • A favorite addition to perfumes, soaps and candles
  • Perfect to use on your pillowcase at night

Monday, 13 August 2018

PARABENS




Parabens are preservatives used in a wide variety of personal care products and foods to prevent the growth of microbes. These endocrine-disrupting chemicals can be absorbed through skin, blood and the digestive system.[1] 
FOUND IN: Shampoos, conditioners, lotions, facial and shower cleansers and scrubs
WHAT TO LOOK FOR ON THE LABEL:  Ethylparaben, butylparaben, methylparaben, propylparaben, isobutylparaben, isopropylparaben, other ingredients ending in –paraben
WHAT ARE PARABENS? Parabens are actually several distinct chemicals with a similar molecular structure. Several are common in a wide array cosmetic and personal care products: ethylparaben, butylparaben, isobutylparaben, isopropylparaben, methylparaben and propylparaben.MORE...
HEALTH CONCERNS: Endocrine disruption, cancer, developmental and reproductive toxicity MORE...
VULNERABLE POPULATIONS: Pregnant women and young children
REGULATIONS: Some forms of parabens are banned in Denmark (propyl and butyl paraben, their isoforms and their salts) in cosmetics products for children up to 3 years.[2]
HOW TO AVOID: Look for products labeled “paraben-free” and read ingredient lists on labels to avoid products with parabens. Many natural and organic cosmetics manufacturers have found effective alternatives to parabens to prevent microbial growth in personal care products. Some companies have created preservative-free products that have shorter shelf lives than conventional products (six months to a year). 

References

[1] Gray, J. State of the Evidence: The Connection between Breast Cancer and the Environment, 2008.
[2] Danish Ministry of the Environment-Environmental Protection Agency. Statutory order on restriction on import, sale and use of certain parabens in cosmetic products for children under 3 years. Available online: http://eng.mst.dk/media/mst/Attachments/Engelskparabenbekendtgrelse.pdf August 12, 2014.
[3] Cosmetic Ingredient Review. Final amended report on the safety assessment of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, isopropylparaben, butylparaben, isobutylparaben, and benzyparaben as used in cosmetic products. International Journal of Toxicology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp 1-82, 2008. Available online: http://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/paraben_build.pdf August 12, 2014.
[4] Ye X., et al., Parabens as urinary biomarkers of exposure in humans. Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 114, pp 1843-1846, 2006.
[5] Calafat AM., et al., Urinary concentrations of four parabens in the U.S. Population: NHANES 2005-2006. Environ Health Persp, vol. 118, no. 5, pp 679–685, 2010.
[6] Darbre PD, et al.,  Concentrations of parabens in human breast tumors. Journal of Applied Toxicology, vol.  24, pp 5-13, 2004.
[7] Barr L., et al., Measurement of paraben concentrations in human breast tissue at serial locations across the breast from axilla to sternum. J Appl Toxicol, vol. 32, no. 3, pp 219–232, 2012.
[8] Prusakiewicz JJ., et al., Parabens inhibit human skin estrogen sulfotransferase activity: Possible link to paraben estrogenic effects. Toxicology, vol. 232, pp 248-56, 2007.
[9] Darbre PD., et al., Paraben esters: review of recent studies of endocrine toxicity, absorption, esterase and human exposure, and discussion of potential human health risks. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 2008.
[10] Prusakiewicz JJ., et al., Parabens inhibit human skin estrogen sulfotransferase activity: Possible link to paraben estrogenic effects. Toxicology, vol. 232, pp 248-56, 2007.
[11] Darbre PD., et a., Paraben esters: review of recent studies of endocrine toxicity, absorption, esterase and human exposure, and discussion of potential human health risks. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 2008.
[12] Golden R., et al., A review of the endocrine activity of parabens and implications for potential risks to human health. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, vol. 35, pp 435-58, 2005.
[13] Dabre PD., et al., Oestrogenic activity of isobutylparaben in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Applied Toxicology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp 219-26. 2002.
[14] Oishi S., Effects of butylparaben on the male reproductive system in rats. Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol 17, pp 31-9, 2001.
[15] Kawaguchi M., et al., Maternal isobutyl-paraben exposure decreased the plasma corticosterone level in dams and sensitivity to estrogen in female offspring rats. J. Vet. Med. Sci., vol. 71, no. 8, pp 1027-33, 2009.
[16] Oishi S., Effects of butylparaben on the male reproductive system in rats. Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol 17, pp 31-9, 2001.
[17] Darbre PD., et a., Paraben esters: review of recent studies of endocrine toxicity, absorption, esterase and human exposure, and discussion of potential human health risks. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 2008.
[18] Prusakiewicz JJ., et al., Parabens inhibit human skin estrogen sulfotransferase activity: Possible link to paraben estrogenic effects. Toxicology, vol. 232, pp 248-56, 2007.
[19] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX). Methyl paraben. Available online: http://endocrinedisruption.org/popup-chemical-details?chemid=667 August 7, 2014.
[20] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX). Ethyl paraben. Available online: http://endocrinedisruption.org/popup-chemical-details?chemid=573 August 7, 2014.
[21] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX). Propyl paraben. Available online: http://endocrinedisruption.org/popup-chemical-details?chemid=795 August 7, 2014.
[22] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX). Butyl paraben. Available online:
[23] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX). Isopropyl paraben. Available online: http://endocrinedisruption.org/popup-chemical-details?chemid=916 August 7, 2014.
[24] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX). Isobutyl paraben. Available online: http://endocrinedisruption.org/popup-chemical-details?chemid=915 August 7, 2014.
[25] Darbre PD., et a., Paraben esters: review of recent studies of endocrine toxicity, absorption, esterase and human exposure, and discussion of potential human health risks. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 2008.
[26] Ishiwatari S., et al., Effects of methyl paraben on skin keratinocytes. J. Appl. Toxicol, vol 27, pp 1-9, 2007.
[27] Ishiwatari S., et al., Effects of methyl paraben on skin keratinocytes. J. Appl. Toxicol, vol 27, pp 1-9, 2007.
[28] Darbre PD., et a., Paraben esters: review of recent studies of endocrine toxicity, absorption, esterase and human exposure, and discussion of potential human health risks. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 2008.
[29] Oishi S.,Lack of spermatotoxic effects of methyl and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 42, pp 1845-49, 2004.
[30] Taxvig C., et al., Do parabens have the ability to interfere with steroidogenesis? Toxicological Sciences, vol. 106, no. 1, pp 206-13, 2008.
[31] Taxvig C., et al., Do parabens have the ability to interfere with steroidogenesis? Toxicological Sciences, vol. 106, no. 1, pp 206-13, 2008.
[32] Oishi S., Effects of butylparaben on the male reproductive system in rats. Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol 17, pp 31-9, 2001.
[33] Kang KS., et al., Decreased sperm number and motile activity on the F1 offspring maternally exposed to butyl p-hydroxybenzoic acid (butyl paraben). J. Vet. Med. Sci., vol. 64, no. 3, pp 227-35, 2002.
[34] Oishi S., Effects of butylparaben on the male reproductive system in rats. Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol 17, pp 31-9, 2001.
[35] Taxvig C., et al., Do parabens have the ability to interfere with steroidogenesis? Toxicological Sciences, vol. 106, no. 1, pp 206-13, 2008.
[36] Kawaguchi M., et al., Maternal isobutyl-paraben exposure decreased the plasma corticosterone level in dams and sensitivity to estrogen in female offspring rats. J. Vet. Med. Sci., vol. 71, no. 8, pp 1027-33, 2009.
[37] Kawaguchi M., et al., Maternal isobutyl-paraben exposure alters anxiety and passive avoidance test performance in adult male rats. Neuroscience Research, vol. 65, no. 2, pp 136-40, 2009.

Friday, 3 August 2018

Cooling Anti-Itch Lotion

Relieve sunburn pain, soothe itching and fight inflammation with this recipe for a cooling anti-itch lotion




Made up of apple cider vinegar and baking soda, this anti-itch lotion goes on smoothly and is simple to make.
Photo courtesy Jessica Ress, Diane Harrison and Adams Media

http://www.motherearthliving.com/health-and-wellness/beauty-recipes/cooling-anti-itch-lotion-ze0z1508zdeb.aspx